Influential Studies concerning contaminated water at Camp Lejeune, North Carolina
Below you will find a nice selection of influential studies of the contaminated water at United States Camp Lejeune, Marine Base in North Carolina. These Camp Lejeune studies were conducted by top experts over many years. The studies show that toxins in the ground, such as Benzene, Vinyl Chloride, PCE and TCE, contaminated the drinking and bathing water at the marine Base from 1953 to 1988. Tragically, millions of veterans, veteran’s families and workers at the base were exposed to the water. Hundreds of thousands of victims suffered many harms and diseases, such as cancer, as a result of drinking the water and bathing in it.
- Morbidity Study of Former Marines, Employees, and Dependents Potentially Exposed to Contaminated Drinking Water at U.S. Marine Corps Base Camp Lejeune April, 2018
This rate of disease study determined that toxic drinking water at Camp Lejeune was linked to a greater likelihood that both Marines and civilian employees would suffer from bladder cancer, kidney cancer, and kidney disease. The study was premised by lots of evidence and relied on other studies. The study results show the association between the chemicals in the Camp Lejeune drinking water and the above-mentioned diseases. This was a very limited study because of selection bias and response rate. ATSDR is engaged in further research of the Camp Lejeune victims, using data from cancer studies to look into cancer incidence.
- Agency for Toxic Substances and Disease Registry (ATSDR). ATSDR Assessment of the Evidence for the Drinking Water Contaminants at Camp Lejeune and Specific Cancers and Other Diseases. Atlanta: U.S. Department of Health and Human Services; January 13, 2017
This is a nice table of certain diseases caused by the toxic Camp Lejeune water and the list provides an assessment “of the evidence of causality for each chemical.” Additionally, there is a table for each listed disease followed with a narrative that assesses the evidence for each chemical as well as ATSDR’s conclusions. For example:
Conditions and Contaminant Findings
Evidence for Causality of Contaminants
|Kidney Cancer||TCE||Sufficient evidence for causation|
|Kidney Cancer||PCE||Below equipoise evidence for causation|
|Non-Hodgkin Lymphoma||TCE||Sufficient evidence for causation|
|Non-Hodgkin Lymphoma||PCE||Equipoise and above evidence for causation|
|Non-Hodgkin Lymphoma||Benzene||Sufficient evidence for causation|
|Multiple Myeloma||TCE||Equipoise and above evidence for causation|
|Multiple Myeloma||PCE||Below equipoise evidence for causation|
|Multiple Myeloma||Benzene||Equipoise and above evidence for causation|
|Leukemias||TCE||Equipoise and above evidence for causation for all types of leukemia|
|Leukemias||PCE||Below equipoise evidence for causation|
|Leukemias||Benzene||Sufficient evidence for causation for all types of leukemia|
|Leukemias||Vinyl chloride||Below equipoise evidence for causation|
- Bove FJ, Ruckart PZ. An Assessment of the Feasibility of Conducting Future Epidemiological Studies at USMC Base Camp Lejeune. 2008.
ATSDR determined that a death study and a cancer study are possible. Department of Defense personnel data could identify Marines who are active duty, naval personnel and civilian employees stationed at the Camp Lejeune military base during the time period when the Hadnot Point and Tarawa Terrace drinking water distribution systems were polluted with volatile organic compounds. ATSDR determined that it is possible to be inclusive in the cancer study of people who were involved in in the ATSDR 1999–2002 study. Also, it is possible to include those participants who will be involved in the Navy/Marine Corps- mandated by congress- health survey, which was set in 2009.
- Bove FJ, Ruckart PZ, Maslia M, Larson TC. Evaluation of mortality among marines and navy personnel exposed to contaminated drinking water at USMC base Camp Lejeune: a retrospective cohort study Environmental Health 2014a; 13:10.
- Bove FJ, Ruckart PZ, Maslia M, Larson TC. Mortality study of civilian employees exposed to contaminated drinking water at USMC Base Camp Lejeune: a retrospective cohort study. Environmental Health 2014b; 13:68.
- Cohn P, Klotz J, Bove F, Fagliano J. Drinking water contamination and the incidence of leukemia and non-Hodgkin’s lymphoma. Environ Health Perspect 1994; 102:556-61.
- Maslia ML, Sautner JB, Faye RE, Suarez-Soto RJ, Aral MM, Grayman WM, Jang W, Wang J, Bove FJ, Ruckart PZ, Valenzuela C, Green JW Jr, Krueger AL. Analyses of groundwater flow, contaminant fate and transport, and distribution of drinking water at Tarawa Terrace and vicinity, U.S. Marine Corps Base Camp Lejeune, North Carolina: Historical reconstruction and present-day conditions – Executive Summary. Atlanta, GA: Agency for Toxic Substances and Disease Registry; 2007.
Two-thirds (2 of 3) drinking-water distribution systems which provided water to family housing at U.S. Marine Corps Base Camp Lejeune were polluted by VOCs. Unfortunately, Groundwater was the only source of drinking water supply to the marine base at Camp Lejeune. Tarawa Terrace drinking-water system, was primarily polluted with the toxin tetrachloroethylene (aka pce) This occurred because the water-supply wells were polluted by an off-base dry-cleaning operations known as the infamous ABC One-Hour Cleaners. The second water distribution system, the Hadnot Point drinking-water distribution system, was contaminated primarily with TCE from on the base industrial operations. Sadly, the toxic wells were non stop utilized until 1985. Occasionally, they were utilized until the beginning of 1987. This study will evaluate if a significant connection exists “between in utero and infant (up to 1 year of age) exposures to drinking-water contaminants and specific birth defects and childhood cancers.” This evaluation “includes births occurring during 1968–1985 to mothers who lived in base family housing during their pregnancies.”
- Maslia ML, Suárez-Soto RJ, Sautner JB, Anderson BA, Jones LE, Faye RE, Aral MM, Guan J, Jang W, Telci IT, Grayman WM, Bove FJ, Ruckart PZ, Moore SM. Analyses and Historical Reconstruction of Groundwater Flow, Contaminant Fate and Transport, and Distribution of Drinking Water Within the Service Areas of the Hadnot Point and Holcomb Boulevard Water Treatment Plants and Vicinities, U.S. Marine Corps Base Camp Lejeune, North Carolina—Chapter A: Summary and Resultss. Atlanta, GA: Agency for Toxic Substances and Disease Registry; 2013.
- Ruckart PZ, Bove FJ, Maslia M. Evaluation of exposure to contaminated drinking water and specific birth defects and childhood cancers at Marine Corps Base Camp Lejeune, North Carolina: a case-control study. Environmental Health 2013, 12:104 doi:10.1186/1476- 069X-12-104.
- Agency for Toxic Substances and Disease Registry. (ATSDR) 1998. Volatile Organic Compounds in Drinking Water and Adverse Pregnancy Outcomes: U.S. Marine Corps Camp Lejeune. Onslow County, North Carolina.